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23 October 2017

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Anish Sir

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Wednesday, 05 April 2017 06:55


Wednesday, 05 April 2017 06:55


History of C++

The C++ programming language has a history going back to 1979, when Bjarne Stroustrup was doing work for his Ph.D. thesis. One of the languages Stroustrup had the opportunity to work with was a language called Simula, which as the name implies is a language primarily designed for simulations. The Simula 67 language - which was the variant that Stroustrup worked with - is regarded as the first language to support the object-oriented programming paradigm. Stroustrup found that this paradigm was very useful for software development, however the Simula language was far too slow for practical use.

Shortly thereafter, he began work on "C with Classes", which as the name implies was meant to be a superset of the C language. His goal was to add object-oriented programming into the C language, which was and still is a language well-respected for its portability without sacrificing speed or low-level functionality. His language included classes, basic inheritanceinliningdefault function arguments, and strong type checking in addition to all the features of the C language.

The first C with Classes compiler was called Cfront, which was derived from a C compiler called CPre. It was a program designed to translate C with Classes code to ordinary C. A rather interesting point worth noting is that Cfront was written mostly in C with Classes, making it a self-hosting compiler (a compiler that can compile itself). Cfront would later be abandoned in 1993 after it became difficult to integrate new features into it, namely C++ exceptions. Nonetheless, Cfront made a huge impact on the implementations of future compilers and on the Unix operating system.

In 1983, the name of the language was changed from C with Classes to C++. The ++ operator in the C language is an operator for incrementing a variable, which gives some insight into how Stroustrup regarded the language. Many new features were added around this time, the most notable of which are virtual functionsfunction overloading, references with the & symbol, the const keyword, and single-line comments using two forward slashes (which is a feature taken from the language BCPL).

In 1985, Stroustrup's reference to the language entitled The C++ Programming Language was published. That same year, C++ was implemented as a commercial product. The language was not officially standardized yet, making the book a very important reference. The language was updated again in 1989 to include protected and static members, as well as inheritance from several classes.

In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was released. The same year, Borland's Turbo C++ compiler would be released as a commercial product. Turbo C++ added a plethora of additional libraries which would have a considerable impact on C++'s development. Although Turbo C++'s last stable release was in 2006, the compiler is still widely used.

In 1998, the C++ standards committee published the first international standard for C++ ISO/IEC 14882:1998, which would be informally known as C++98. The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was said to be a large influence in the development of the standard. The Standard Template Library, which began its conceptual development in 1979, was also included. In 2003, the committee responded to multiple problems that were reported with their 1998 standard, and revised it accordingly. The changed language was dubbed C++03.

In 2005, the C++ standards committee released a technical report (dubbed TR1) detailing various features they were planning to add to the latest C++ standard. The new standard was informally dubbed C++0x as it was expected to be released sometime before the end of the first decade. Ironically, however, the new standard would not be released until mid-2011. Several technical reports were released up until then, and some compilers began adding experimental support for the new features.

In mid-2011, the new C++ standard (dubbed C++11) was finished. The Boost library project made a considerable impact on the new standard, and some of the new modules were derived directly from the corresponding Boost libraries. Some of the new features included regular expression support (details on regular expressions may be found here), a comprehensive randomization library, a new C++ time library, atomics support, a standard threading library (which up until 2011 both C and C++ were lacking), a new for loop syntax providing functionality similar to foreach loops in certain other languages, the auto keyword, new container classes, better support for unions and array-initialization lists, and variadic templates.

Wednesday, 05 April 2017 06:50

C Programming

A Brief History of C

C is a general-purpose language which has been closely associated with the UNIX operating system for which it was developed - since the system and most of the programs that run it are written in C.

Many of the important ideas of C stem from the language BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. The influence of BCPL on C proceeded indirectly through the language B, which was written by Ken Thompson in 1970 at Bell Labs, for the first UNIX system on a DEC PDP-7. BCPL and B are "type less" languages whereas C provides a variety of data types.

In 1972 Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs writes C and in 1978 the publication of The C Programming Language by Kernighan & Ritchie caused a revolution in the computing world.

In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or "ANSI C", was completed late 1988.


Wednesday, 05 April 2017 06:42

Intro to C

Every full C program begins inside a function called "main". A function is simply a collection of commands that do "something". The main function is always called when the program first executes. From main, we can call other functions, whether they be written by us or by others or use built-in language features. To access the standard functions that comes with your compiler, you need to include a header with the #include directive. What this does is effectively take everything in the header and paste it into your program. Let's look at a working program:

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
    printf( "Toshiyas Information Technology.\n" );
    return 0;

Let's look at the elements of the program. The #include is a "preprocessor" directive that tells the compiler to put code from the header called stdio.h into our program before actually creating the executable. By including header files, you can gain access to many different functions--both the printf and getchar functions are included in stdio.h. 

The next important line is int main(). This line tells the compiler that there is a function named main, and that the function returns an integer, hence int. The "curly braces" ({ and }) signal the beginning and end of functions and other code blocks. If you have programmed in Pascal, you will know them as BEGIN and END. Even if you haven't programmed in Pascal, this is a good way to think about their meaning. 

The printf function is the standard C way of displaying output on the screen. The quotes tell the compiler that you want to output the literal string as-is (almost). The '\n' sequence is actually treated as a single character that stands for a newline (we'll talk about this later in more detail); for the time being, just remember that there are a few sequences that, when they appear in a string literal, are actually not displayed literally by printf and that '\n' is one of them. The actual effect of '\n' is to move the cursor on your screen to the next line. Notice the semicolon: it tells the compiler that you're at the end of a command, such as a function call. You will see that the semicolon is used to end many lines in C. 

The next command is getchar(). This is another function call: it reads in a single character and waits for the user to hit enter before reading the character. This line is included because many compiler environments will open a new console window, run the program, and then close the window before you can see the output. This command keeps that window from closing because the program is not done yet because it waits for you to hit enter. Including that line gives you time to see the program run. 

Finally, at the end of the program, we return a value from main to the operating system by using the return statement. This return value is important as it can be used to tell the operating system whether our program succeeded or not. A return value of 0 means success. 

The final brace closes off the function. You should try compiling this program and running it. You can cut and paste the code into a file, save it as a .c file, and then compile it. If you are using a command-line compiler, such as Borland C++ 5.5, you should read the compiler instructions for information on how to compile. Otherwise compiling and running should be as simple as clicking a button with your mouse (perhaps the "build" or "run" button). 

You might start playing around with the printf function and get used to writing simple C programs.

Explaining your Code

Comments are critical for all but the most trivial programs and this tutorial will often use them to explain sections of code. When you tell the compiler a section of text is a comment, it will ignore it when running the code, allowing you to use any text you want to describe the real code. To create a comment in C, you surround the text with /* and then */ to block off everything between as a comment. Certain compiler environments or text editors will change the colour of a commented area to make it easier to spot, but some will not. Be certain not to accidentally comment out code (that is, to tell the compiler part of your code is a comment) you need for the program. 

When you are learning to program, it is also useful to comment out sections of code in order to see how the output is affected.

Using Variables

So far you should be able to write a simple program to display information typed in by you, the programmer and to describe your program with comments. That's great, but what about interacting with your user? Fortunately, it is also possible for your program to accept input.

But first, before you try to receive input, you must have a place to store that input. In programming, input and data are stored in variables. There are several different types of variables; when you tell the compiler you are declaring a variable, you must include the data type along with the name of the variable. Several basic types include char, int, and float. Each type can store different types of data.

A variable of type char stores a single character, variables of type int store integers (numbers without decimal places), and variables of type float store numbers with decimal places. Each of these variable types - char, int, and float - is each a keyword that you use when you declare a variable. Some variables also use more of the computer's memory to store their values. 

It may seem strange to have multiple variable types when it seems like some variable types are redundant. But using the right variable size can be important for making your program efficient because some variables require more memory than others. For now, suffice it to say that the different variable types will almost all be used! 

Before you can use a variable, you must tell the compiler about it by declaring it and telling the compiler about what its "type" is. To declare a variable you use the syntax <variable type> <name of variable>;. (The brackets here indicate that your replace the expression with text described within the brackets.) For instance, a basic variable declaration might look like this:

int myVariable;

Note once again the use of a semicolon at the end of the line. Even though we're not calling a function, a semicolon is still required at the end of the "expression". This code would create a variable called myVariable; now we are free to use myVariable later in the program.

It is permissible to declare multiple variables of the same type on the same line; each one should be separated by a comma. If you attempt to use an undefined variable, your program will not run, and you will receive an error message informing you that you have made a mistake. 

Here are some variable declaration examples:

int x;
int a, b, c, d;
char letter;
float the_float;

While you can have multiple variables of the same type, you cannot have multiple variables with the same name. Moreover, you cannot have variables and functions with the same name. 

A final restriction on variables is that variable declarations must come before other types of statements in the given "code block" (a code block is just a segment of code surrounded by { and }). So in C you must declare all of your variables before you do anything else: 


#include <stdio.h>
int main()
    /* wrong!  The variable declaration must appear first */
    printf( "Declare x next" );
    int x;

    return 0;


#include <stdio.h>
int main() 
    int x;
    printf( "Declare x first" );

    return 0;

Reading input

Using variables in C for input or output can be a bit of a hassle at first, but bear with it and it will make sense. We'll be using the scanf function to read in a value and then printf to read it back out. Let's look at the program and then pick apart exactly what's going on. You can even compile this and run it if it helps you follow along.

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
    int this_is_a_number;

    printf( "Please enter a number: " );
    scanf( "%d", &this_is_a_number );
    printf( "You entered %d", this_is_a_number );
    return 0;

So what does all of this mean? We've seen the #include and main function before; main must appear in every program you intend to run, and the #include gives us access to printf (as well as scanf). (As you might have guessed, the io in stdio.h stands for "input/output"; std just stands for "standard.") The keyword int declares this_is_a_number to be an integer. 

This is where things start to get interesting: the scanf function works by taking a string and some variables modified with &. The string tells scanf what variables to look for: notice that we have a string containing only "%d" -- this tells the scanf function to read in an integer. The second argument of scanf is the variable, sort of. We'll learn more about what is going on later, but the gist of it is that scanf needs to know where the variable is stored in order to change its value. Using & in front of a variable allows you to get its location and give that to scanf instead of the value of the variable. Think of it like giving someone directions to the soda aisle and letting them go get a coca-cola instead of fetching the coke for that person. The & gives the scanf function directions to the variable. 

When the program runs, each call to scanf checks its own input string to see what kinds of input to expect, and then stores the value input into the variable. 

The second printf statement also contains the same '%d'--both scanf and printf use the same format for indicating values embedded in strings. In this case, printf takes the first argument after the string, the variable this_is_a_number, and treats it as though it were of the type specified by the "format specifier". In this case, printf treats this_is_a_number as an integer based on the format specifier. 

So what does it mean to treat a number as an integer? If the user attempts to type in a decimal number, it will be truncated (that is, the decimal component of the number will be ignored) when stored in the variable. Try typing in a sequence of characters or a decimal number when you run the example program; the response will vary from input to input, but in no case is it particularly pretty. 

Of course, no matter what type you use, variables are uninteresting without the ability to modify them. Several operators used with variables include the following: *, -, +, /, =, ==, >, <. The * multiplies, the / divides, the - subtracts, and the + adds. It is of course important to realize that to modify the value of a variable inside the program it is rather important to use the equal sign. In some languages, the equal sign compares the value of the left and right values, but in C == is used for that task. The equal sign is still extremely useful. It sets the value of the variable on the left side of the equals sign equal to the value on the right side of the equals sign. The operators that perform mathematical functions should be used on the right side of an equal sign in order to assign the result to a variable on the left side. 

Here are a few examples:

a = 4 * 6; /* (Note use of comments and of semicolon) a is 24 */
a = a + 5; /* a equals the original value of a with five added to it */
a == 5     /* Does NOT assign five to a. Rather, it checks to see if a equals 5.*/ 

The other form of equal, ==, is not a way to assign a value to a variable. Rather, it checks to see if the variables are equal. It is extremely useful in many areas of C; for example, you will often use == in such constructions as conditional statements and loops. You can probably guess how < and > function. They are greater than and less than operators. 

For example:

a < 5  /* Checks to see if a is less than five */
a > 5  /* Checks to see if a is greater than five */ 
a == 5 /* Checks to see if a equals five, for good measure */ 
Friday, 31 March 2017 07:36


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Friday, 31 March 2017 06:47


Wednesday, 29 March 2017 09:06


Wednesday, 29 March 2017 09:06


Wednesday, 29 March 2017 09:06

the person


Anish Singh is a name among millions who struggled, failed and surged ahead in search of success, happiness and contentment. Just like any other middle class guy, he too had a bunch of unclear dreams and a blurred vision of his goals in life. All he had was an undying learning attitude to hold on to. Rowing through ups and downs, it was time that taught him the true meaning of his life.

And once discovered, he consistently kept resigning from his comfort zone and to share the secret of his success with the entire world. It is this very urge of helping people and doing something good for the society that inspired him to take the initiative of changing people's lives in the form of "Free Life-Changing Seminars and Sessions".

No wonder people connect with him and his mission of 'Sharing' is now being actively propagated and practiced by millions. It is his diligent focus, the great support of his family and the faith of his team that keeps him going.

The starting point

His family was into the Aluminum business, which collapsed and the onus was onto him to fill in this crucial time of need. And as expected by any young guy, he started doing everything he could. Right from joining a multi-level marketing company to manufacturing & marketing household products. He left no stone unturned.

It was during this phase, he discovered interest and need beyond any formal education. Hence, instead of being a brilliant student, he opted to drop out of Kirorimal College, Delhi in the third year of B.Com. Rather, he embarked on the journey of studying yet another interesting subject. A subject called life.

Next, in the year 2002, he along with his three friends, started a company, which was closed within six months. But Anish's mind was still open. With the concept of "Sharing" in his heart, he summed up his entire experience in a reversed book on marketing. He was just 21.

It was the year 2003. He created a world record by knocking down a juggernaut task of taking more than 10,000 shots of 122 models in just 10 hours and 45 minutes. But as expected, he didn't stop. His focus was not diluted by the glamour and temporary adulation he got. Rather, this fueled his innate desire to revamp the modeling world further. At the age of 26, he launched ImagesBazaar. The year was 2006. Not being a massive setup, he took the job of multi-tasking. Being the counselor, tele-caller and a photographer all by himself, he paved his way forward. And today, ImagesBazaar is the world's largest collection of Indian images with over a million images and more than 7000 clients across 45 countries.

Sandeep has single handedly brought this paradigm shift in the modeling world. Countless models have been successfully launched with words like exploitation and harassment sidelined to a large extent.

It was this life-changing endeavor that made him one of the most renowned entrepreneurs of India at a young age of 29. His ethics resonating some of the philosophies like 'To Never Fear of Failures' and "Be Truthful to self and others".

Apart from being a successful entrepreneur, he is a guide, a mentor, a role model and a youth icon for millions of people all over the world. People love and adore him for his great mission of making everybody believe in them and helping people to make their life 'Aasaan' (Easy).

His unshakable faith in the divine power grants him strength to thrive. Being at the helm of success, it is quite astonishing to know that money does not lure him. And that's why, profits don't drive his organisation. It's an emotional bonding with each and every person working in the company that matters for him.

Capable of building an entire new industry or an organization, he is satisfied to adhere to his self-made benchmark that states, "If you have more than you need, simply share it with those who need it the most."

With a completely distinct aura than any other person of his age and stature, he rose above the rat race and broke through the age-old myth of 'Life is tough' with his simple mantra 'Aasaan Hai'.

And out of this root solution branched out numerous ground breaking realities such as, 'Money grows on trees', 'Success is not just about working hard' and the most interesting being "To say is easy, but to do is easier".

Cherishing all the bad experiences to be the great turning points of his life, his experience comes from bad experiences. Anish believes that whether you start from a rupee or a million, the important thing is to start and that too with your own money.

His vision is to ignite and inspire the entrepreneurial spirit of tomorrow's leaders and to help them succeed.
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