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Computer Fundamental

Computer Fundamental (8)

Friday, 30 March 2018 06:53

Best Computer Jobs for the Future

Written by

Trying to determine your ideal IT career path? Want to know which computer jobs will be in the greatest demand, offer the highest salaries and best opportunities for advancement once you finish training? ITCareerFinder assembled this comparison of the decade’s hottest technology careers to serve as your guide. These 10 computer jobs will experience the fastest growth through 2020, pay salaries well above the national average, boast top employment rates and offer a range of advancement opportunities.

Best Computer Jobs

Compare the best computer jobs by employment projections, key growth factors and salary, then click the link of your favorite IT career path(s) for deep dive job profiles featuring skills and responsibilities, desirable certifications, salary analyses, education requirements, training & degree programs, local job openings and tips from IT insiders.

Methodology used to discover this decade’s best computer jobs centered around a 4-point weighted analysis of employment growth forecasts from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-2013 Edition, IT salaries from Indeed.com, the ratio of job listings to qualified applicants on leading technology job boards, and potential for upward mobility based on interviews with IT/employment subject matter experts and 2012's IT hiring trends.

Discover the ten best computer jobs for the future:

  1. Mobile Application Developer

    best mobile app developer jobs

    Mobile App Developer Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 32% (much faster than avg.)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 292,000 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $95,000
    • Mobile App Developer Career Path ››
    Key Growth Factors Mobile application development is one of the world's fastest growing occupations. As smart phones and tablets continue to change the way we communicate, do business, and access news & entertainment, the demand for new and innovative mobile apps is growing at an incredible speed. This increased demand translates to one of the largest IT skills gaps ever realized – there are simply more mobile app development job openings than skilled application developers to fill them. Google's Android and Apple's iOS (iPhone & iPad) platforms will continue to offer the most job opportunities for mobile developers.
  2. Database Administrator

    best DBA jobs

    Database Administrator Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 31% (much faster than avg.)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 33,900 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $82,000
    • DBA Career Path ››
    Key Growth FactorsBusinesses are accumulating record amounts of digital information, spurring the need for trained and certified DBAs to store, organize, analyze and secure this data. In addition, as more databases are connected to the Internet and cloud, data security will become increasingly vital & complex; database administrators and developers - especially those with information security skills - will be hired to protect corporate databases from hackers and other security threats.
  3. Software Engineer

    Best Software Engineer Jobs

    Software Engineer Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 30% (much faster than avg.)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 270,900 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $90,000
    • Software Engineer Career Path ››
    Key Growth Factors The demand for software engineers will rise along with technological advancements and the proliferation of emerging network technologies. For example, increased corporate adoption of cloud and virtualization strategies will create a surge in demand for applications software engineers who can design and develop secure web-based programs. Likewise, as the sophistication and adoption of electronic data-processing systems continues to rise, the need to implement and upgrade to these new computer systems will fuel job creation for systems software engineers.
  4. Video Game Designer

    Best Video Game Designer Jobs

    Video Game Designer Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 30% (much faster than avg.)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 270,900 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $80,000
    • Video Game Designer Career Path ››
    Key Growth FactorsThe $65+ billion dollar gaming industry has more than tripled in size over the last decade with no signs of slowing. Beyond the booming market for traditional console and PC games, the increased popularity, processing power and graphics capabilities of mobile devices has unlocked a new world of employment opportunities for game designers, artists and programmers. Video game designers with mobile software development expertise will be especially sought after as smart phones & tablets, such as the iPhone and iPad, continue to change how video games are accessed and played. Game designers will also benefit from growing public and private sector demand for intelligent simulation programs, e.g., military flight simulators.
  5. Network Administrator

    Network Administrator Job Growth

    Network Administrator Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 28% (much faster than avg.)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 96,600 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $69,000
    • Network Administrator Career Path ››
    Key Growth FactorsDemand for network administrators will continue to rise as organizations invest in new systems and network technologies to increase productivity and gain a competitive advantage. The rapid adoption of tablets and smartphones – and "Bring your own device" (BYOD) policies – into corporate culture means more organizations will use the Internet to conduct business online, translating to increased job opportunities for network administrators and network managers who can help businesses securely utilize these emerging technologies to communicate with employees and customers.
  6. IT Security Specialist

    IT Security Specialist career growth

    IT Security Specialist Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 22% (faster than average)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 65,700 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $87,000
    • IT Security Specialist Career Path ››
    Key Growth Factors Security will remain a top concern for IT executives and hiring managers as the frequency, scope and complexity of cyber attacks continues to escalate. IT executives interviewed in Computerworld’s 2012 IT forecast survey report actively seeking professionals with information security skills, but finding it difficult to locate good talent. This indicates an incredible opportunity for technology professionals to advance their security skills and credentials. Computer security skills in the greatest demand in 2012 and beyond include IT operations security, mobile device security, risk management, information assurance, network and cloud/virtualization security.
  7. Computer Systems Analyst

    Computer Systems Analyst career growth

    Computer Systems Analyst Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 22% (faster than average)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 120,400 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $79,000
    • Computer Systems Analyst Career Path ››
  8. Web Developer

    Best Web Developer Jobs

    Web Developer Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 22% (faster than average)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 65,700 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $91,000
    • Web Developer Career Path ››
    Key Growth FactorsEach year, a record number of businesses bring their offerings to the Internet. As the number of products and services available online continues to grow, web developers and designers will enjoy increased job opportunities. Proliferation of social media, social networking and other Web 2.0 communities will boost demand for web developers as businesses look to engage a new generation of customers and spur a competitive advantage in these rapidly growing platforms.
  9. Health Information Technician

    Best Health Information Technician Jobs

    Health Information Technician Employment Proj. | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 21% (faster than average)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 37,700 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $46,000
    • Health Information Technician Career Path ››
    Key Growth Factors Health care will produce more new computer jobs from 2012 through 2020 than any other single industry. Aggressive government mandates and funding incentives for hospitals and private health practices to adopt centralized electronic medical record (EMR) systems, is driving unprecedented hiring of health information technicians who are trained & certified in these new technologies. Health information technicians earn the lowest starting salary on this list, however the required education is the quickest (typically a 2-year degree program in Health IT), plus candidates learning now will be well-positioned for lucrative management positions as the health IT job market continues its rapid expansion.
  10. Technology Manager

    Best IT Manager Jobs

    Technology Manager Employment Projections | 2010 - 2020

    • 10-Year Growth Pct: 18% (faster than average)†
    • 10-Year Growth Volume: 55,800 new jobs
    • Average Salary: $111,000
    • Technology Manager Career Path ››
    Key Growth Factors Job growth for information technology managers is directly tied to the growth rates of the IT workers they supervise. Record-breaking growth in a wide range of technical career fields – including networking, mobile development, software engineering, databases and virtualization – will continue from 2013 through 2020 and beyond, in turn fueling demand for talented IT managers. Additional growth will be driven by increased focus on information security and the hiring of additional IT security personnel.
Friday, 30 March 2018 06:40

THE ROLE OF COMPUTER IN THE MODERN WORLD

Written by

About two hundred years before, the word "computer" started to appear in the dictionary. Some people even didn't know what is a computer? However, most of the people today not just knowing what is a computer, but understand how to use a computer. Therefore, computer becomes more and more popular and important to our society. We can use computer everywhere and they are very useful and helpful to our life. 
Computers have brought about a tremendous revolution in every walk of life and are expected to open more vast fields due to the dexterity of those who design software and those who develop application programs. In a very short period, scientists have been able to extirpate all the defects, the limitations and the shortcoming of computer and much is expected from their ingenuity, acumen and acquisitiveness.
The fields of application of computers are various and new applications are being searched out. The scientists applied it to prediction of weather earthquakes, and storms, controlling of satellites and controlling of atomic reactions in reactors and else where. Engineers have not lagged behind. They use computers in designing cars aeroplanes, ships, buildings, bridges and tools etc.
In the business world, computers are playing great parts. They are used to word processing, record keeping, inventory controlling, patrol processing, account keeping and auditing, stock marketing and ticket reservations. They are now used to keep personal telephone and address directory. Business concerns user computers in forecasting demands and planning to meet them. Manufacturing concerns use them in forecasting material requirements, inventory management, production scheduling, control and other purposes
Bank now use them to keep records of day to day transactions, keeping accounts and managing over all investment. Computers have been placed at the hands of bank customers. This provides facility of making withdrawals at odd hours. Financial houses take the help of the computers to make their credit cards a medium of exchange. For entertainment purposes, computers are now used to play complex games, I.Q games and stimulation game. Computers have also played a vital role in communication field. It has become so advantageous that the 21st century is being called “information century” because information can easily be transferred from one place to another within seconds by using internet. We can convey are messages , send reports with audio visual accessoriAbout two hundred years before, the word "computer" started to appear in the dictionary. Some people even didn't know what is a computer? However, most of the people today not just knowing what is a computer, but understand how to use a computer. Therefore, computer becomes more and more popular and important to our society. We can use computer everywhere and they are very useful and helpful to our life.
Computers have brought about a tremendous revolution in every walk of life and are expected to open more vast fields due to the dexterity of those who design software and those who develop application programs. In a very short period, scientists have been able to extirpate all the defects, the limitations and es through e-mail.
But computers don’t have only merits. As all man0made things have their limitations, weaknesses and shortcoming, so are the computers wrought with them. Firstly they have inflexibility. They understand only symbols. Secondly they need detailed instructions to work. Thirdly they are costly and their peripheral devices are far most costly than the equipment themselves. Fourthly the cost of maintenance is also high. Fifthly the cost of operation in terms of staff and material is expensive. Sixthly in particular circumstances stored data may be completely lost, seventhly they are susceptible to destructive programmes called virus and eighthly they need extra care in handling and maintenance.
Despite the aforesaid frailties, foibles and faults they are tempted with, computers are widely acclaimed, intensively used and blindly relied upon. Their applications are increasing in various fields and they are expected to do services so far not imagined by man

Tuesday, 20 February 2018 08:29

Memory management

Written by

1. UNIVAC is
A) Universal Automatic Computer
B) Universal Array Computer
C) Unique Automatic Computer
D) Unvalued Automatic Computer

2. The basic operations performed by a computer are
A) Arithmetic operation
B) Logical operation
C) Storage and relative
D) All the above

3. The two major types of computer chips are
A) External memory chip
B) Primary memory chip
C) Microprocessor chip
D) Both b and c

4. Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers
A) First Generation
B) Second Generation
C) Third Generation
D) Fourth Generation

5. What is the main difference between a mainframe and a super computer?
A) Super computer is much larger than mainframe computers
B) Super computers are much smaller than mainframe computers
C) Supercomputers are focused to execute few programs as fast as possible while mainframe uses its power to execute as many programs concurrently
D) Supercomputers are focused to execute as many programs as possible while mainframe uses its power to execute few programs as fast as possible.

6. ASCII and EBCDIC are the popular character coding systems. What does EBCDIC stand for?
A) Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
B) Extended Bit Code Decimal Interchange Code
C) Extended Bit Case Decimal Interchange Code
D) Extended Binary Case Decimal Interchange Code

7. The brain of any computer system is
A) ALU
B) Memory
C) CPU
D) Control unit

8. Storage capacity of magnetic disk depends on
A) tracks per inch of surface
B) bits per inch of tracks
C) disk pack in disk surface
D) All of above

9. The two kinds of main memory are:
A) Primary and secondary
B) Random and sequential
C) ROM and RAM
D) All of above

10. A storage area used to store data to a compensate for the difference in speed at which the different units can handle data is
A) Memory
B) Buffer
C) Accumulator
D) Address

11. Computer is free from tiresome and boardoom. We call it
A) Accuracy
B) Reliability
C) Diligence
D) Versatility

12. Integrated Circuits (Ics) are related to which generation of computers?
A) First generation
B) Second generation
C) Third generation
D) Fourth generation

13. CD-ROM is a
A) Semiconductor memory
B) Memory register
C) Magnetic memory
D) None of above

14. A hybrid computer
A) Resembles digital computer
B) Resembles analogue computer
C) Resembles both a digital and analogue computer
D) None of the above

15. Which type of computers uses the 8-bit code called EBCDIC?
A) Minicomputers
B) Microcomputers
C) Mainframe computers
D) Super computer

16. The ALU of a computer responds to the commands coming from
A) Primary memory 
B) Control section
C) External memory
D) Cache memory

17. Chief component of first generation computer was
A) Transistors
B) Vacuum Tubes and Valves
C) Integrated Circuits
D) None of above

18. To produce high quality graphics (hardcopy) in color, you would want to use a/n
A) RGB monitor
B) Plotter
C) Ink-jet printer
D) Laser printer

19. What are the stages in the compilation process?
A) Feasibility study, system design and testing
B) Implementation and documentation
C) Lexical Analysis, syntax analysis, and code generation
D) None of the above

20. Which of the following IC was used in third generation of computers?
A) SSI
B) MSI
C) LSI
D) Both a and b

21. The main electronic component used in first generation computers was
A) Transistors
B) Vacuum Tubes and Valves
C) Integrated Circuits
D) None of above

22. A dumb terminal has
A) an embedded microprocessor
B) extensive memory
C) independent processing capability
D) a keyboard and screen

23. One millisecond is
A) 1 second
B) 10th of a seconds
C) 1000th of a seconds
D) 10000th of a seconds

24. The output quality of a printer is measured by
A) Dot per sq. inch
B) Dot per inch
C) Dots printed per unit time
D) All of the above

25. Which of the following was a special purpose computer?
A) ABC
B) ENIAC
C) EDVAC
D) All of the above

26. What was the computer invented by Attanasoff and Clifford?
A) Mark I
B) ABC
C) Z3
D) None of above

27. Which of the following storage devices can store maximum amount of data?
A) Floppy Disk
B) Hard Disk
C) Compact Disk
D) Magneto Optic Disk

28. Which computer was considered the first electronic computer until 1973 when court invalidated the patent?
A) ENIAC
B) MARK I
C) Z3
D) ABC

29. A physical connection between the microprocessor memory and other parts of the microcomputer is known as
A) Path
B) Address bus
C) Route
D) All of the above

30. High density double sided floppy disks could store _____ of data
A) 1.40 MB
B) 1.44 GB
C) 1.40 GB
D) 1.44 MB

31. A high quality CAD system uses the following for printing drawing and graphs
A) Dot matrix printer
B) Digital plotter
C) Line printer
D) All of the above

32. Which of the following is not an input device?
A) OCR
B) Optical scanners
C) Voice recognition device
D) COM (Computer Output to Microfilm)

33. The accuracy of the floating-point numbers representable in two 16-bit words of a computer is approximately
A) 16 digits
B) 6 digits
C) 9 digits
D) All of above

34. In most of the IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drivers, memory, expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of the board?
A) Motherboard
B) Daughterboard
C) Bredboard
D) Fatherboard

35. In most IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drives, memory expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of this board?
A) Motherboard
B) Breadboard
C) Daughter board
D) Grandmother board

36. Magnetic disks are the most popular medium for
A) Direct access
B) Sequential access
C) Both of above
D) None of above

37. A technique used by codes to convert an analog signal into a digital bit stream is known as
A) Pulse code modulation
B) Pulse stretcher
C) Query processing
D) Queue management

38. Regarding a VDU, Which statement is more correct?
A) It is an output device
B) It is an input device
C) It is a peripheral device
D) It is hardware item

39. A modern electronic computer is a machine that is meant for
A) Doing quick mathematical calculations
B) Input, storage, manipulation and outputting of data
C) Electronic data processing
D) Performing repetitive tasks accurately

40. When was vacuum tube invented?
A) 1900
B) 1906
C) 1910
D) 1880

41. Which of the following produces the best quality graphics reproduction?
A) Laser printer
B) Ink jet printer
C) Plotter
D) Dot matrix printer

42. Computers with 80286 microprocessor is 
A) XT computer
B) AT comptuers
C) PS/2 computer
D) None of above

43. An application suitable for sequential processing is
A) Processing of grades
B) Payroll processing
C) Both a and b
D) All of above

44. Which of the following is not processing?
A) arranging
B) manipulating
C) calculating
D) gathering

45. The digital computer was developed primarily in
A) USSR
B) Japan
C) USA
D) UK

46. Software in computer
A) Enhances the capabilities of the hardware machine
B) Increase the speed of central processing unit
C) Both of above
D) None of above

47. Today’s computer giant IBM was earlier known by different name which was changes in 1924. What was that name?
A) Tabulator Machine Co.
B) Computing Tabulating Recording Co.
C) The Tabulator Ltd.
D) International Computer Ltd.

48. Before a disk drive can access any sector record, a computer program has to provide the record’s disk address. What information does this address specify?
A) Track number
B) Sector number
C) Surface number
D) All of above

49. The arranging of data in a logical sequence is called
A) Sorting
B) Classifying
C) Reproducing
D) Summarizing

50. What is the responsibility of the logical unit in the CPU of a computer?
A) To produce result
B) To compare numbers
C) To control flow of information
D) To do math’s works

51. Abacus was the first
A) electronic computer
B) mechanical computer
C) electronic calculator
D) mechanical calculator

52. If in a computer, 16 bits are used to specify address in a RAM, the number of addresses will be
A) 216
B) 65,536
C) 64K
D) Any of the above

53. Instructions and memory address are represented by
A) Character code
B) Binary codes
C) Binary word
D) Parity bit

54. The terminal device that functions as a cash register, computer terminal, and OCR reader is the:
A) Data collection terminal
B) OCR register terminal
C) Video Display terminal
D) POS terminal

55. A set of flip flops integrated together is called ____
A) Counter
B) Adder
C) Register
D) None of the above

56. People often call ______ as the brain of computer system
A) Control Unit
B) Arithmetic Logic Unit
C) Central Processing Unit
D) Storage Unit

57. Which is used for manufacturing chips?
A) Bus
B) Control unit
C) Semiconductors
D) A and b only

58. The value of each bead in heaven is
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 7

59. The first computer introduced in Nepal was
A) IBM 1400
B) IBM 1401
C) IBM 1402
D) IBM1402

60. Mnemonic a memory trick is used in which of the following language?
A) Machine language
B) Assembly language
C) High level language
D) None of above

61. Instruction in computer languages consists of
A) OPCODE
B) OPERAND
C) Both of above
D) None of above

62. Which generation of computer is still under development
A) Fourth Generation
B) Fifth Generation
C) Sixth Generation
D) Seventh Generation

63. A register organized to allow to move left or right operations is called a ____
A) Counter
B) Loader
C) Adder
D) Shift register

64. Which was the most popular first generation computer?
A) IBM 1650
B) IBM 360
C) IBM 1130
D) IBM 2700

65. Which is considered a direct entry input device?
A) Optical scanner
B) Mouse and digitizer
C) Light pen
D) All of the above

66. A set of information that defines the status of resources allocated to a process is
A) Process control
B) ALU
C) Register Unit
D) Process description

67. Each set of Napier’s bones consisted of ______ rods.
A) 5
B) 9
C) 11
D) 13

68. BCD is
A) Binary Coded Decimal
B) Bit Coded Decimal
C) Binary Coded Digit
D) Bit Coded Digit

69. When was the world’s first laptop computer introduced in the market and by whom?
A) Hewlett-Packard, 1980
B) Epson, 1981
C) Laplink Traveling Software Inc, 1982
D) Tandy Model-200, 1985

70. From which generation operating systems were developed?
A) First
B) Second
C) Third
D) Fourth

71. The first firm to mass-market a microcomputer as a personal computer was
A) IBM
B) Super UNIVAC
C) Radio Shaks
D) Data General Corporation

72. How many address lines are needed to address each machine location in a 2048 x 4 memory chip?
A) 10
B) 11
C) 8
D) 12

73. Properly arranged data is called
A) Field
B) Words
C) Information
D) File

74. A computer consists of
A) A central processing unit
B) A memory
C) Input and output unit
D) All of the above

75. Why are vacuum tubes also called valves?
A) Because they can amplify the weak signals and make them strong
B) Because they can stop or allow the flow of current
C) Both of above
D) None of above

76. John Napier invented Logarithm in
A) 1614
B) 1617
C) 1620
D) None of above

77. An integrated circuit is
A) A complicated circuit
B) An integrating device
C) Much costlier than a single transistor
D) Fabricated on a tiny silicon chip

78. What type of control pins are needed in a microprocessor to regulate traffic on the bus, in order to prevent two devices from trying to use it at the same time?
A) Bus control
B) Interrupts
C) Bus arbitration
D) Status

79. Where as a computer mouse moves over the table surface, the trackball is
A) Stationary
B) Difficult to move
C) Dragged
D) Moved in small steps

80. Which of the following is used as a primary storage device?
A) Magnetic drum
B) Hard Disks
C) Floppy
D) All of above

81. Multi user systems provided cost savings for small business because they use a single processing unit to link several
A) Personal computers
B) Workstations
C) Dumb terminals
D) Mainframes

82. What are the three decisions making operations performed by the ALU of a computer?
A) Grater than
B) Less than
C) Equal to
D) All of the above

83. The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is
A) Editing
B) Writing
C) Formatting
D) All of above

84. Nepal brought a computer for census of 2028 BS. This computer was of
A) first generation
B) second generation
C) third generation
D) fourth generation

85. Algorithm and Flow chart help us to
A) Know the memory capacity
B) Identify the base of a number system
C) Direct the output to a printer
D) Specify the problem completely and clearly

86. Which statement is valid about computer program?
A) It is understood by a computer
B) It is understood by programmer
C) It is understood user
D) Both a & b

87. The difference between memory and storage is that memory is _____ and storage is __
A) Temporary, permanent
B) Permanent, temporary
C) Slow, fast
D) All of above

88. When was Pascaline invented?
A) 1617
B) 1620
C) 1642
D) 1837

89. Which of the following statement is valid?
A) Lady Augusta is the first programmer
B) Ada is the daughter of Lord Byron, a famous English poet
C) ADA is a programming language developed by US Defense
D) All of above

90. A compiler is a translating program which
A) Translates instruction of a high level language into machine language
B) Translates entire source program into machine language program
C) It is not involved in program’s execution
D) All of above

91. What is required when more than one person uses a central computer at the same time?
A) Light pen
B) Mouse
C) Digitizer
D) Terminal

92. Which of the following is the first computer to use Stored Program Concept?
A) UNIVAC
B) ENIAC
C) EDSAC
D) None of above

93. The term gigabyte refers to
A) 1024 bytes
B) 1024 kilobytes
C) 1024 megabytes
D) 1024 gigabyte

94. in which year was UK’s premier computing event called ?The which computer? started?
A) 1980
B) 1985
C) 1986
D) 1987

95. Once you load the suitable program and provide required data, computer does not need human intervention. This feature is known as
A) Accuracy
B) Reliability
C) Versatility
D) Automatic

96. What is a brand?
A) The name of companies that made computers
B) The name of product a company gives to identify its product in market
C) A name of class to indicate all similar products from different companies
D) All of above

97. Machine language is
A) Machine dependent
B) Difficult to program
C) Error prone
D) All of above

98. A byte consists of
A) One bit
B) Four bits
C) Eight bits
D) Sixteen bits

99. Modern Computers are very reliable but they are not
A) Fast
B) Powerful
C) Infallible
D) Cheap

100. What is the date when Babbage conceived Analytical engine
A) 1642
B) 1837
C) 1880
D) 1850

 

 
 

Correct Answers

1-A 2-D 3-D 4-D 5-C 6-A 7-C 8-D 9-C 10-B
11-C 12-C 13-D 14-C 15-C 16-B 17-B 18-B 19-C 20-D
21-B 22-D 23-C 24-A 25-A 26-B 27-B 28-A 29-B 30-D
31-B 32-D 33-B 34-A 35-A 36-C 37-A 38-C 39-B 40-B
41-C 42-B 43-C 44-D 45-C 46-A 47-B 48-D 49-A 50-B
51-D 52-B 53-B 54-D 55-C 56-C 57-C 58-C 59-B 60-B
61-C 62-B 63-D 64-A 65-D 66-D 67-C 68-A 69-B 70-C
71-C 72-B 73-C 74-D 75-B 76-A 77-D 78-C 79-A 80-A
81-C 82-D 83-C 84-B 85-D 86-D 87-A 88-C 89-D 90-D
91-D 92-C 93-C 94-A 95-D 96-B 97-D 98-C 99-C 100-B
Thursday, 08 February 2018 05:03

Classification of Computers | Type of Computer

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Computers differ based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling and functionality.

According to purpose, computers are either general purpose or specific purpose. General purpose computers are designed to perform a range of tasks. They have the ability to store numerous programs, but lack in speed and efficiency. Specific purpose computers are designed to handle a specific problem or to perform a specific task. A set of instructions is built into the machine. 

According to data handling, computers are analog, digital or hybrid. Analog computers work on the principle of measuring, in which the measurements obtained are translated into data. Modern analog computers usually employ electrical parameters, such as voltages, resistances or currents, to represent the quantities being manipulated. Such computers do not deal directly with the numbers. They measure continuous physical magnitudes. Digital computers are those that operate with information, numerical or otherwise, represented in a digital form. Such computers process data into a digital value (in 0s and 1s). They give the results with more accuracy and at a faster rate. Hybrid computersincorporate the measuring feature of an analog computer and counting feature of a digital computer. For computational purposes, these computers use analog components and for storage, digital memories are used.

According to functionality, Type of computers are classified as : 

Analog Computer 

 An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. 

Digital Computer

 A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system

Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital)

 A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex simulations.

Analog Computer 

 An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. 

Digital Computer

 A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system

Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital)

 A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex     simulations.

On the basis of Size: Type of Computer

Super Computer  

The fastest and most powerful type of computer Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.

The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently. 

Mainframe Computer

A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. 

Mini Computer 

A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously.

Micro Computer or Personal Computer

 Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk.

 Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer.

 Palmtop Computer/Digital Diary /Notebook /PDAs: a hand-sized computer. Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an input and output device.

Workstations

A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user's machine (client machine) in contrast to a "server" or "mainframe."

Tuesday, 06 February 2018 07:19

Block Diagram of Computer

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computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. A computer as shown in Fig.  performs basically five major computer operations or functions irrespective of their size and make. These are

it accepts data or instructions by way of input,
it stores data,
it can process data as required by the user,
it gives results in the form of output, and
it controls all operations inside a computer.

We discuss below each of these Computer operation

     Block Diagram of Computer and Explain its Various Components

1. Input: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. You should know that computer is an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and performs some processing giving out processed data. Therefore, the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing. 

2. Storage: The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. It is because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing. This storage unit or the primary storage of the computer system is designed to do the above functionality. It provides space for storing data and instructions. 

The storage unit performs the following major functions:

All data and instructions are stored here before and after processing.

• Intermediate results of processing are also stored here.

3. Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit. 

4. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form. Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processing.

5. Control: The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are performed. Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations inside the computer.

FUNCTIONAL UNITS 

In order to carry out the operations mentioned in the previous section the computer allocates the task between its various functional units. The computer system is divided into three separate units for its operation. They are

Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)  

Logical Unit :After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored.

Control Unit (CU) 

The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. Control Unit is responsible  for  co ordinating various operations using time signal. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computer’s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output. 

Central Processing Unit (CPU) 

The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations.

 
Tuesday, 06 February 2018 05:14

Introduction to Computer

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What is Computer : Computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with Information. The term computer is derived from the Latin termcomputare’, this means to calculate or programmable machineComputer can not do anything without a Program. It represents the decimal numbers through a string of binary digits. The Word 'Computer' usually refers to the Center Processor Unit plus Internal memory.

Charles Babbage is called the "Grand Father" of the computer. The First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage was called Analytical Engine. It uses read-only memory in the form of punch cards.

Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.

Computer

Digital Computer Definition

The basic components of a modern digital computer are: Input Device, Output Device, Central Processor Unit (CPU), mass storage device and memory. A Typical modern computer uses LSI Chips.  Four Functions about computer are:

 

Input (Data):

Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc. 

Process:  

Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system.

Output:

Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing. Output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use.

Computer Classification: By Size and Power

Computers differ based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling and functionality.

According to functionality, computers are classified as: 

Analog Computer: A computer that represents numbers by some continuously variable physical quantity, whose variations mimic the properties of some system being modeled.

Personal computer: personal computer is a computer small and low costThe term"personal computer" is used to describe desktop computers (desktops).

Workstation: A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user's machine (client machine) in contrast to a "server" or "mainframe."

Minicomputer: minicomputer isn't very mini. At least, not in the way most of us think of mini. You know how big your personal computer is and its related family.

Mainframe: It refers to the kind of large computer that runs an entire corporation.

Supercomputer: It is the biggest, fastest, and most expensive computers on earth.

Microcomputer: Your personal computer is a microcomputer.